History of Blue Ridge Music
By Joseph Wilson and Wayne Martin
Settlers in the Tidewater
region of the New World did not anticipate the flowering of new musical
styles in the mountains that lay to the west. The powerful Cherokee tribe
inhabited the southernmost part of the region and the Cherokee, Shawano
and other tribes used the middle and upper areas as hunting grounds. Some
colonists feared conflict with the Indians and dangers associated with
isolation if they ventured into this frontier region. To those who sought
land, however, the Blue Ridge represented opportunity.
Approximately one hundred
years passed after the founding of Jamestown before colonists began to
immigrate en masse to the region. The Great Wagon Road-or Valley Road, as
it was called in Virginia-proved to be the best way into the mountains.
The Valley Road followed old Indian trails for some 700 miles, starting
near Philadelphia and running down the Shenandoah Valley. Near what is now
Roanoke, Virginia, some travelers turned south along the Carolina Road
into the Piedmont of North Carolina and South Carolina. Others continued
into the mountains of southwest Virginia, east Tennessee, and beyond.
In 1730 a community of
Germans settled an area near what today is Luray, Virginia. The Germans
were followed by English Quakers, who were followed by Scotch-Irish,
French Huguenots, Irish, Welsh, and more English. African American slaves
were brought into the Blue Ridge by some of these settlers. Other African
Americans came with owners who moved into the region as Tidewater lands
were worn out by the unrelenting planting of tobacco.
By 1805, a year in which
the population of the entire nation was only two million, as many as
10,000 travelers passed through Abingdon in the far southwestern corner of
Virginia. By some estimates, fully one-fourth of the present population of
the United States has ancestors who used this route to move westward.
Groups traveling the
Valley Road brought cultural traits and skills from many homelands and
from diverse sections of those lands. A few of these traditions have
survived to the present day, but most cultural attributes blended with
those from other cultures and changed into something altogether new as
people moved and settled together.
The musical exchange
among these groups proved particularly potent. Perhaps the Blue Ridge
insulated its inhabitants from the more rigid class distinctions and elite
cultural practices adhered to by planters living in the East. Settlers
could see London from Baltimore or Richmond, but not from Gap Creek or the
Meadows of Dan. The old authority did not reach that far. Fresh ideas,
including ways of thinking about and playing music, flourished in this
The Fiddle and Banjo
The fiddle and banjo
ensemble, the core of the mountain stringband and the symbol of Blue Ridge
music for many Americans, is a prime example of a new flavor that emerged
from the cultural stew simmering in the region prior to the Civil War.
was novel and
exciting when Europeans first brought it to North America during the late
seventeenth century. It was replacing the hornpipe, tabor, and harp at
country dances and other rural social gatherings in the Old World.
Part of the excitement
resulted from improvements to the instrument and its increased
availability. European luthiers such as Antonio Stradivarius of Cremona
and Jacob Stainer in the Tyrol innovated construction techniques that gave
the instrument a deeper tone and greater projection. New wealth from the
tobacco trade allowed Virginia planters to purchase violins by these
makers or good copies of their instruments. Perhaps one of these fiddles
constituted the prize described in an announcement appearing in the
Virginia Gazette in 1736; spectators were invited to hear twenty fiddlers
in Hanover County compete for a fine violin.
Black slaves and white
indentured servants did much of the music-making at Virginia dances, and
Gazette advertisements for runaways sometimes mentioned that the escapee
was a fiddler. Virginians seeking to acquire slaves and indentured
servants sometimes specified that in addition to the usual qualifications
they wanted a musician.
By the beginning of the
nineteenth century, fiddles could be found in settlements throughout the
Southern Appalachians, including Cherokee communities. Captain John Norton
reported in his 1809 travel journal that Cherokees were playing fiddles
and doing "English dances." Fiddles were played in people's
homes for dances and for pleasure, at community work gatherings like
cornshuckings and bean stringings, for special celebrations such as the
last day of the school year, and at contests and fiddlers conventions
where musicians vied for awards and recognition.
banjo(2) has a far
different lineage. No one knows exactly when the instrument first came to
North America, but there is no doubt about its roots. Banjo-making skills
were introduced by West Africans brought here to work on tobacco and sugar
plantations. The instrument had existed in a bewildering array of forms in
Africa for hundreds of years.
Jefferson was a fiddler who seemed to have had his hands on a banjo
because he described the instrument and how it was tuned. In his book
Notes on the State of Virginia, Jefferson said of black residents of the
Blue Ridge, "The instrument propoer to them is the banjar which they
brought hither from Africa."
African Americans playing
the African banjo and the European fiddle formed the first uniquely
American ensemble--the root of the root, the beginnings of a sound that
would eventually shape blues, bluegrass, and Country and Western music,
among other genres. Generations of travelers reported that black fiddle
and banjo players, often performing with players of rhythm instruments,
provided music for dancing in many areas of the Southeast.
It is uncertain when
whites took up banjo playing, but after 1800 the instrument was used by
white comics who impersonated black banjoists, creating racial caricatures
by wearing ragged clothing and blackening their faces with burnt cork.
They told jokes, sang comedy songs and performed tunes such as
"Turkey in the Straw" and "Arkansas Traveler" on
banjo, fiddle, hand drum, and bones. Some of these performers worked in
early circus troops and were playing for Blue Ridge audiences by the early
These artists initiated
the first international pop music fad, the so-called minstrel era, which
lasted until the end of the century. During the heyday of minstrelsy, the
banjo, a traditional instrument once used solely by country people, was
adopted by urban players who could afford fine instruments. Banjo
construction improved and the instrument as we know it today was created.
Like all fads, minstrelsy
passed, but it left much behind in the Blue Ridge. Many mountain square
dance tunes have minstrel roots. The banjo, the main prop of the minstrel
performer, found its way into the mountains and in tandem with the fiddle
became the core of stringband music(3).
The Myth of Isolation
The people of the Blue
Ridge began to attract the notice of the popular press shortly after the
Civil War. Many journalists relied on a vivid imagination rather than
accurate reporting of mountain ways. By the 1920s the term
"mountaineers" conjured up a widely recognized stereotype of
uneducated, fiercely independent people, often feuding and living in clans
in remote hollers.
This pervasive notion of
isolation colors public perception of the region's traditional music. Many
believe that the relative inaccessibility of mountain communities has
preserved music in an unchanged, and even primitive, state over
generations. The most romantic version of this theory imagines mountain
music as a holdover of the ballads, reels, and pipe tunes of the British
The influence of African
American music and the minstrel stage demonstrates that the Blue Ridge was
far from isolated, even in the early nineteenth century. Music in the
region was shaped by other national events and trends. A few of these are
A wave of religious
revivals that swept the South at the beginning of the nineteenth century
reached deeply into the Southern Appalachians. The
songs associated with
this "Great Awakening"(4) became a permanent part of the repertory
of many church congregations in western North Carolina and Virginia.
The middle of the
nineteenth century witnessed one of the cataclysmic events of American
history, the Civil War. Loyalties were divided in the mountains of western
North Carolina and Virginia, and communities witnessed conflicts between
families and neighbors who chose different sides. Traditional songs that
found their way into the region express this division. Ballads such as
"Lincoln Was a Union Man" promoted the Union's perspective,
while "Bright Sunny South" conveyed southern sympathies.
Despite its divisiveness,
the War seems to have expanded the repertories of Blue Ridge musicians.
Soldiers from the mountains traded tunes with fiddlers and banjo players
from other parts of the South and learned pieces played by regimental
bands. After the conflict ended, mountain musicians brought home songs and
tunes composed to commemorate battles or convey the experiences of
In the late 1800s logging
and mining companies expanded operations in the mountains of western North
Carolina and Virginia. Laborers from across the region were hired to work
in the mines and log the forests. Camps created to house and feed the
workers became fertile ground for swapping tunes.
Large-scale mining and
logging required the construction of railroads into the mountains. The
employment of African American work crews to lay track and drill tunnels
introduced worksongs and ballads like "John Henry" and
"Swannanoa Tunnel" to mountain musicians and audiences.
By the turn of the
twentieth century, mountain residents could buy merchandise made available
to the national market by large mail-order companies. In addition to tools
and clothing, they ordered instruments from Sears Roebuck and Montgomery
Ward. Guitars, mandolins, autoharps, and cellos, now easily accessible,
were combined with fiddles and banjos to form larger stringband ensembles,
the precursors to the old-time and bluegrass bands so pervasive in the
The invention of sound
recordings and the birth of the recording industry in the 1920s and '30s
brought Blue Ridge music to a national audience. To their surprise, urban
record company executives discovered that a market existed among rural
residents for stringband music. The promotions devised to sell traditional
music drew upon the stereotype of isolated mountaineers who had preserved
the "old-time" music.
Although many musicians
from western North Carolina and Virginia were recruited to make records,
most made only a handful of recordings. A few, such as Ernest Stoneman (Galax,
Virginia), J.E. and Wade Mainer (Buncombe County, North Carolina), and the
Carter Family (Maces Springs, Virginia), had prolific recording careers
and shaped the beginnings of Country and Western music. These recording
artists also influenced their neighbors in the Blue Ridge. Their playing
styles and repertories began to supplement, and sometimes replace, local
styles and tunes.
About the same time that
commercial labels were recording Blue Ridge musicians for profit,
collectors interested in cultural preservation were scouting the region to
document traditional music. British scholar and folksong collector Cecil
Sharp was one of the first. He journeyed to the Blue Ridge at the time of
the First World War to take down the words and music of
ballads(5). Sharp was
captivated with the quality of the music he heard and was surprised by the
fact that people of all ages knew songs. In his English Folk Songs of the
Southern Appalachians, Sharp described some communities in the Blue Ridge
as places where "singing is as common and almost as universal a
practice as speaking."
Other music scholars and
collectors followed Sharp. Their field recordings, along with those made
by record companies, constitute a treasure trove of ballads and love
songs, dance tunes, children's songs, hymns, spirituals, and gospel songs.
Over the years many people have plumbed this archive. Aaron Copland,
perhaps the nation's best-known composer, interpreted traditional fiddle
tunes in his classical works as a way to express the American spirit and
In 1957 a performing
group named The Kingston Trio drew upon an obscure ballad collected from
singer Frank Profitt of western North Carolina for their hit recording,
"Hang Down Your Head, Tom Dooley." The success of this song
helped launch the folksong revival of the 1950s and '60s.
Some Americans who were
part of this movement became interested in the source of the songs
performed by popular artists like the Kingston Trio and Joan Baez. Young
urbanites began to visit the Blue Ridge to find old-time and bluegrass
musicians. They made recordings and films of traditional artists and
introduced mountain musicians to college and city audiences. Some were
inspired to learn to play the music they heard performed in concerts or
issued on recordings.
During the late 1960s
large numbers of outsiders began to attend music events held in the Blue
Ridge region. Fiddler's conventions held in Union Grove, North Carolina,
and Galax, Virginia, attracted crowds of young people motivated by the
desire to hear music, learn tunes, or be part of a huge party.
Aspiring musicians from
across the nation and from Europe and Japan continued to visit Blue Ridge
music venues during the last quarter of the twentieth century. Some
musicians, such as Tommy Jarrell and Fred Cockerham of Surry County, North
Carolina, became musical role models for thousands of people who grew up
outside the region, a phenomenon noted by the New Yorker magazine in 1987.
Blue Ridge Music Today
In the Blue Ridge, as in
nearly all places in America nowadays, one can find fans and performers of
almost any type of classical, contemporary, pop, and alternative music. In
addition, recent immigrants from Mexico, Central America, and Asia are
bringing their musical tastes and preferences to the region. In this mix
the established traditions of the Blue Ridge continue to thrive and
The Blue Ridge harbors a
fine array of stringbands. Old-time bands perform a largely older dance
music repertoire. Bluegrass bands(6), which evolved in part from that
tradition over the last sixty years, play music intended more for
listening than dancing. Singers of the older Anglo-Irish ballad repertoire
still live and perform in the region. Some historic forms of religious
music survive. There is a vigorous tradition of making musical
instruments, mainly fiddles, banjos, guitars, mandolins, and dulcimers.
The nation's best musical instruments are handmade, and some of the finest
are made in small woodworking shops in the region.
Performers from the
region, such as Doc Watson, the Carter Family, Ralph Stanley, Etta Baker,
Wayne Henderson, and others, have taken their music to audiences across
the country and around the world. Many visitors journey to western North
Carolina and Virginia to hear the music in its homeplace.
Many young people growing
up in mountain communities are learning to play the music passed down in
their families and communities. They learn through informal
apprenticeships with relatives and friends, by attending community musical
events, or by taking more formal lessons offered in after-school programs
in some of the public schools. Several area colleges that offer
traditional music camps and workshops often provide scholarships to
promising young musicians in the region.
People from outside of the mountains come to Asheville, Blacksburg, and
other towns in the Blue Ridge in order to get closer to the music
traditions and to a growing community of revivalist musicians. They bring
new musical ideas and styles that are attracting an enthusiastic young
audience to the music. For listeners and pickers of all ages, the music of
the Blue Ridge continues to inspire.
(1) "Rye Straw" as played by Bascom Lamar Lunsford of North Carolina for the Library of Congress in Washington, DC, 1949. From the CD recording Bascom Lamar Lunsford: Ballads, Banjo Tunes, and Sacred Songs of Western North Carolina (Smithsonian Folkways SF CD 40082).
(2) "Old Joe Clark" as played by Wade Ward, Galax, Virginia, 31 August 1959. From the CD recording Southern Journey: Ballads and Breakdowns: Songs from the Southern Mountains, Volume 2 (Rounder Records CD 1702).
(3) "Sally Goodwin" as performed by Ernest Stoneman and His Dixie Mountaineers for the Edison recording label in New York, New York, 24 April 1928. From the CD recording Ernest V. Stoneman: Edison Recordings 1928 (County Records CD 3510).
(4) "How Happy Are They" as sung by the congregation of the Laurel Glenn Regular Baptist
Church, Alleghany County, North Carolina, 17 September 1978. From the LP recording Children of the Heav'nly King: Religious Expression in the Central Blue Ridge (American Folklife Center AFC L69-L70).
(5) "Little Massie Grove" (Child 81: "Little Musgrave and Lady Barnard") as sung by Ruby Bowman Plemmons, Patrick County, Virginia, 25 October 1976. From the CD recording Virginia Traditions: Ballads From British Tradition (Global Village Music CD 1002).
(6) "Two Dollar Bill" as performed by Glen Neaves & the Virginia Mountain Boys, Carroll/Grayson County, Virginia, circa 1974. From the LP recording Glen Neaves and the Virginia Mountain Boys: Country Bluegrass From Southwest Virginia (Folkways Records FA 3830).